java.lang.Object  
↳  java.lang.Number  
↳  java.math.BigDecimal 
This class represents immutable integer numbers of arbitrary length. Large numbers are typically used in security applications and therefore BigIntegers offer dedicated functionality like the generation of large prime numbers or the computation of modular inverse.
Since the class was modeled to offer all the functionality as the Integer
class does, it provides even methods that operate bitwise on a two's
complement representation of large integers. Note however that the
implementations favors an internal representation where magnitude and sign
are treated separately. Hence such operations are inefficient and should be
discouraged. In simple words: Do NOT implement any bit fields based on
BigInteger.
Constants  

BigDecimal  ONE  The constant one as a BigDecimal . 

int  ROUND_CEILING  Rounding mode to round towards positive infinity.  
int  ROUND_DOWN  Rounding mode where the values are rounded towards zero.  
int  ROUND_FLOOR  Rounding mode to round towards negative infinity.  
int  ROUND_HALF_DOWN  Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor.  
int  ROUND_HALF_EVEN  Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor.  
int  ROUND_HALF_UP  Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor.  
int  ROUND_UNNECESSARY  Rounding mode where the rounding operations throws an ArithmeticException for the case that rounding is necessary, i.e. 

int  ROUND_UP  Rounding mode where positive values are rounded towards positive infinity and negative values towards negative infinity.  
BigDecimal  TEN  The constant ten as a BigDecimal . 

BigDecimal  ZERO  The constant zero as a BigDecimal . 
Public Constructors  

Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string representation
given as a character array.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string representation
given as a character array.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string representation
given as a character array.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string representation
given as a character array.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string
representation.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a string
representation.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the 64bit double
val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the 64bit double
val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given big integer
val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given big integer
val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a given unscaled value
unscaledVal and a given scale.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from a given unscaled value
unscaledVal and a given scale.  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given int
val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given int val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given long val .  
Constructs a new
BigDecimal instance from the given long val . 
Public Methods  

Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the absolute value of
this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the absolute value of
this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this + augend .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this + augend .  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a byte value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the byte range ([128..127]).  
Compares this
BigDecimal with val .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this / divisor .  
Returns a
BigDecimal array which contains the integral part of
this / divisor at index 0 and the remainder this %
divisor at index 1.  
Returns a
BigDecimal array which contains the integral part of
this / divisor at index 0 and the remainder this %
divisor at index 1.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the integral part of
this / divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the integral part of
this / divisor .  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a double value.  
Returns
true if x is a BigDecimal instance and if
this instance is equal to this big decimal.  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a float value.  
Returns a hash code for this
BigDecimal .  
Returns this
BigDecimal as an int value.  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a int value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the int range ([2^{31}..2^{31}1]).  
Returns this
BigDecimal as an long value.  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a long value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the int range ([2^{63}..2^{63}1]).  
Returns the maximum of this
BigDecimal and val .  
Returns the minimum of this
BigDecimal and val .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance where the decimal point has
been moved n places to the left.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance where the decimal point has
been moved n places to the right.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this *
multiplicand .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this *
multiplicand .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is the this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is +this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is +this .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this ^ n .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this ^ n .  
Returns the precision of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this % divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this % divisor .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this , rounded
according to the passed context mc .  
Returns the scale of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this 10^n .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance with the specified scale.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance with the specified scale.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance with the specified scale.  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a short value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the short range ([2^{15}..2^{15}1]).  
Returns the sign of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance with the same value as this but with a unscaled value where the trailing zeros have been
removed.  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this  subtrahend .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal whose value is this  subtrahend .  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a big integer instance.  
Returns this
BigDecimal as a big integer instance if it has no
fractional part.  
Returns a string representation of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns a string representation of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns a canonical string representation of this
BigDecimal .  
Returns the unit in the last place (ULP) of this
BigDecimal
instance.  
Returns the unscaled value (mantissa) of this
BigDecimal instance
as a BigInteger .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance whose value is equal to unscaledVal .  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance whose value is equal to unscaledVal 10^(scale ).  
Returns a new
BigDecimal instance whose value is equal to val . 
[Expand]
Inherited Methods  

From class java.lang.Number
 
From class java.lang.Object
 
From interface java.lang.Comparable

Rounding mode to round towards positive infinity. For positive values
this rounding mode behaves as ROUND_UP
, for negative values as
ROUND_DOWN
.
Rounding mode where the values are rounded towards zero.
Rounding mode to round towards negative infinity. For positive values
this rounding mode behaves as ROUND_DOWN
, for negative values as
ROUND_UP
.
Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor. Ties are broken by rounding down.
Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor. Ties are broken by rounding to the even neighbor.
Rounding mode where values are rounded towards the nearest neighbor. Ties are broken by rounding up.
Rounding mode where the rounding operations throws an ArithmeticException
for the case that rounding is necessary, i.e. for
the case that the value cannot be represented exactly.
Rounding mode where positive values are rounded towards positive infinity and negative values towards negative infinity.
Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string representation
given as a character array.
in  array of characters containing the string representation of
this BigDecimal . 

offset  first index to be copied. 
len  number of characters to be used. 
NullPointerException  if in == null . 

NumberFormatException  if offset < 0 or len <= 0 or offset+len1 < 0 or offset+len1 >= in.length . 
NumberFormatException  if in does not contain a valid string representation of a big decimal. 
Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string representation
given as a character array.
in  array of characters containing the string representation of
this BigDecimal . 

offset  first index to be copied. 
len  number of characters to be used. 
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
NullPointerException  if in == null . 

NumberFormatException  if offset < 0 or len <= 0 or offset+len1 < 0 or offset+len1 >= in.length . 
NumberFormatException  if in does not contain a valid string representation
of a big decimal. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string representation
given as a character array.
in  array of characters containing the string representation of
this BigDecimal . 

NullPointerException  if in == null . 

NumberFormatException  if in does not contain a valid string representation
of a big decimal.

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string representation
given as a character array. The result is rounded according to the
specified math context.
in  array of characters containing the string representation of
this BigDecimal . 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
NullPointerException  if in == null . 

NumberFormatException  if in does not contain a valid string representation
of a big decimal. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string
representation.
val  string containing the string representation of this BigDecimal . 

NumberFormatException  if val does not contain a valid string representation
of a big decimal.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a string
representation. The result is rounded according to the specified math
context.
val  string containing the string representation of this BigDecimal . 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
NumberFormatException  if val does not contain a valid string representation
of a big decimal. 

ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the 64bit double
val
. The constructed big decimal is equivalent to the given
double. For example, new BigDecimal(0.1)
is equal to 0.1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625
. This happens
as 0.1
cannot be represented exactly in binary.
To generate a big decimal instance which is equivalent to 0.1
use
the BigDecimal(String)
constructor.
val  double value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance. 

NumberFormatException  if val is infinity or not a number.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the 64bit double
val
. The constructed big decimal is equivalent to the given
double. For example, new BigDecimal(0.1)
is equal to 0.1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625
. This happens
as 0.1
cannot be represented exactly in binary.
To generate a big decimal instance which is equivalent to 0.1
use
the BigDecimal(String)
constructor.
val  double value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
NumberFormatException  if val is infinity or not a number. 

ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given big integer
val
. The scale of the result is 0
.
val  BigInteger value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given big integer
val
. The scale of the result is 0
.
val  BigInteger value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a given unscaled value
unscaledVal
and a given scale. The value of this instance is
unscaledVal
10^(scale
).
unscaledVal  BigInteger representing the unscaled value of this
BigDecimal instance. 

scale  scale of this BigDecimal instance. 
NullPointerException  if unscaledVal == null .


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from a given unscaled value
unscaledVal
and a given scale. The value of this instance is
unscaledVal
10^(scale
). The result is rounded according
to the specified math context.
unscaledVal  BigInteger representing the unscaled value of this
BigDecimal instance. 

scale  scale of this BigDecimal instance. 
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding. 

NullPointerException  if unscaledVal == null .

Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given int
val
. The scale of the result is 0.
val  int value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given int val
. The scale of the result is 0
. The result is rounded
according to the specified math context.
val  int value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and c.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given long val
. The scale of the result is 0
.
val  long value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance.


Constructs a new BigDecimal
instance from the given long val
. The scale of the result is 0
. The result is rounded
according to the specified math context.
val  long value to be converted to a BigDecimal instance. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and the new big decimal cannot be represented
within the given precision without rounding.


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of
this
. The result is rounded according to the passed context
mc
.
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 

abs(this)
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the absolute value of
this
. The scale of the result is the same as the scale of this.
abs(this)
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this + augend
.
The scale of the result is the maximum of the scales of the two
arguments.
augend  value to be added to this . 

this + augend
.NullPointerException  if augend == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this + augend
.
The result is rounded according to the passed context mc
.
augend  value to be added to this . 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
this + augend
.NullPointerException  if augend == null or mc == null .


Returns this BigDecimal
as a byte value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the byte range ([128..127]). If these
conditions are not met, an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
BigDecimal
as a byte value.ArithmeticException  if rounding is necessary or the number doesn't fit in a byte. 

Compares this BigDecimal
with val
. Returns one of the
three values 1
, 0
, or 1
. The method behaves as
if this.subtract(val)
is computed. If this difference is > 0 then
1 is returned, if the difference is < 0 then 1 is returned, and if the
difference is 0 then 0 is returned. This means, that if two decimal
instances are compared which are equal in value but differ in scale, then
these two instances are considered as equal.
val  value to be compared with this . 

1
if this > val
, 1
if this < val
,
0
if this == val
.NullPointerException  if val == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
The scale of the result is the difference of the scales of this
and divisor
. If the exact result requires more digits, then the
scale is adjusted accordingly. For example, 1/128 = 0.0078125
which has a scale of 7
and precision 5
.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

this / divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if the result cannot be represented exactly. 
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
The result is rounded according to the passed context mc
. If the
passed math context specifies precision 0
, then this call is
equivalent to this.divide(divisor)
.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
this / divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null or mc == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if mc.getRoundingMode() == UNNECESSARY and rounding
is necessary according mc.getPrecision() .

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
As scale of the result the parameter scale
is used. If rounding
is required to meet the specified scale, then the specified rounding mode
roundingMode
is applied.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

scale  the scale of the result returned. 
roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
this / divisor
rounded according to the given rounding
mode.NullPointerException  if divisor == null or roundingMode == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == RoundingMode.UNNECESSAR Y and
rounding is necessary according to the given scale and given
precision.

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
As scale of the result the parameter scale
is used. If rounding
is required to meet the specified scale, then the specified rounding mode
roundingMode
is applied.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

scale  the scale of the result returned. 
roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
this / divisor
rounded according to the given rounding
mode.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

IllegalArgumentException  if roundingMode is not a valid rounding mode. 
ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == ROUND_UNNECESSARY and rounding is
necessary according to the given scale.

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
The scale of the result is the scale of this
. If rounding is
required to meet the specified scale, then the specified rounding mode
roundingMode
is applied.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
this / divisor
rounded according to the given rounding
mode.NullPointerException  if divisor == null or roundingMode == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == RoundingMode.UNNECESSARY and
rounding is necessary according to the scale of this.

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this / divisor
.
The scale of the result is the scale of this
. If rounding is
required to meet the specified scale, then the specified rounding mode
roundingMode
is applied.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
this / divisor
rounded according to the given rounding
mode.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

IllegalArgumentException  if roundingMode is not a valid rounding mode. 
ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == ROUND_UNNECESSARY and rounding is
necessary according to the scale of this.

Returns a BigDecimal
array which contains the integral part of
this / divisor
at index 0 and the remainder this %
divisor
at index 1. The quotient is rounded down towards zero to the
next integer. The rounding mode passed with the parameter mc
is
not considered. But if the precision of mc > 0
and the integral
part requires more digits, then an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

mc  math context which determines the maximal precision of the result. 
[this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor),
this.remainder(divisor)]
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
Returns a BigDecimal
array which contains the integral part of
this / divisor
at index 0 and the remainder this %
divisor
at index 1. The quotient is rounded down towards zero to the
next integer.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

[this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor),
this.remainder(divisor)]
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the integral part of
this / divisor
. The quotient is rounded down towards zero to the
next integer. The rounding mode passed with the parameter mc
is
not considered. But if the precision of mc > 0
and the integral
part requires more digits, then an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

mc  math context which determines the maximal precision of the result. 
this / divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null or mc == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if mc.getPrecision() > 0 and the result requires more
digits to be represented.

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the integral part of
this / divisor
. The quotient is rounded down towards zero to the
next integer. For example, 0.5/0.2 = 2
.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

this / divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 .

Returns this BigDecimal
as a double value. If this
is too
big to be represented as an float, then Double.POSITIVE_INFINITY
or Double.NEGATIVE_INFINITY
is returned.
Note, that if the unscaled value has more than 53 significant digits, then this decimal cannot be represented exactly in a double variable. In this case the result is rounded.
For example, if the instance x1 = new BigDecimal("0.1")
cannot be
represented exactly as a double, and thus x1.equals(new
BigDecimal(x1.doubleValue())
returns false
for this case.
Similarly, if the instance new BigDecimal(9007199254740993L)
is
converted to a double, the result is 9.007199254740992E15
.
BigDecimal
as a double value.
Returns true
if x
is a BigDecimal
instance and if
this instance is equal to this big decimal. Two big decimals are equal if
their unscaled value and their scale is equal. For example, 1.0
(10*10^(1)) is not equal to 1.00 (100*10^(2)). Similarly, zero
instances are not equal if their scale differs.
x  object to be compared with this . 

x
is a BigDecimal
and this == x
.
Returns this BigDecimal
as a float value. If this
is too
big to be represented as an float, then Float.POSITIVE_INFINITY
or Float.NEGATIVE_INFINITY
is returned.
Note, that if the unscaled value has more than 24 significant digits, then this decimal cannot be represented exactly in a float variable. In this case the result is rounded.
For example, if the instance x1 = new BigDecimal("0.1")
cannot be
represented exactly as a float, and thus x1.equals(new
BigDecimal(x1.folatValue())
returns false
for this case.
Similarly, if the instance new BigDecimal(16777217)
is converted
to a float, the result is 1.6777216E
7.
BigDecimal
as a float value.
Returns a hash code for this BigDecimal
.
this
.
Returns this BigDecimal
as an int value. Any fractional part is
discarded. If the integral part of this
is too big to be
represented as an int, then this
% 2^32 is returned.
BigDecimal
as a int value.
Returns this BigDecimal
as a int value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the int range ([2^{31}..2^{31}1]). If
these conditions are not met, an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
BigDecimal
as a int value.ArithmeticException  if rounding is necessary or the number doesn't fit in a int. 

Returns this BigDecimal
as an long value. Any fractional part is
discarded. If the integral part of this
is too big to be
represented as an long, then this
% 2^64 is returned.
BigDecimal
as a long value.
Returns this BigDecimal
as a long value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the int range ([2^{63}..2^{63}1]). If
these conditions are not met, an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
BigDecimal
as a long value.ArithmeticException  if rounding is necessary or the number doesn't fit in a long. 

Returns the maximum of this BigDecimal
and val
.
val  value to be used to compute the maximum with this. 

max(this, val
.NullPointerException  if val == null .


Returns the minimum of this BigDecimal
and val
.
val  value to be used to compute the minimum with this. 

min(this, val
.NullPointerException  if val == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
instance where the decimal point has
been moved n
places to the left. If n < 0
then the
decimal point is moved n
places to the right.
The result is obtained by changing its scale. If the scale of the result becomes negative, then its precision is increased such that the scale is zero.
Note, that movePointLeft(0)
returns a result which is
mathematically equivalent, but which has scale >= 0
.
n  number of placed the decimal point has to be moved. 

this * 10^(n
).
Returns a new BigDecimal
instance where the decimal point has
been moved n
places to the right. If n < 0
then the
decimal point is moved n
places to the left.
The result is obtained by changing its scale. If the scale of the result becomes negative, then its precision is increased such that the scale is zero.
Note, that movePointRight(0)
returns a result which is
mathematically equivalent, but which has scale >= 0.
n  number of placed the decimal point has to be moved. 

this * 10^n
.
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this *
multiplicand
. The scale of the result is the sum of the scales of the
two arguments.
multiplicand  value to be multiplied with this . 

this * multiplicand
.NullPointerException  if multiplicand == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this *
multiplicand
. The result is rounded according to the passed context
mc
.
multiplicand  value to be multiplied with this . 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
this * multiplicand
.NullPointerException  if multiplicand == null or mc == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the this
. The
result is rounded according to the passed context mc
.
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 

this
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is the this
. The
scale of the result is the same as the scale of this.
this
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is +this
. The result
is rounded according to the passed context mc
.
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 

this
, rounded
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is +this
. The scale
of the result is the same as the scale of this.
this
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this ^ n
. The
result is rounded according to the passed context mc
.
Implementation Note: The implementation is based on the ANSI standard X3.2741996 algorithm.
n  exponent to which this is raised. 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
this ^ n
.ArithmeticException  if n < 0 or n > 999999999 .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this ^ n
. The
scale of the result is n
times the scales of this
.
x.pow(0)
returns 1
, even if x == 0
.
Implementation Note: The implementation is based on the ANSI standard X3.2741996 algorithm.
n  exponent to which this is raised. 

this ^ n
.ArithmeticException  if n < 0 or n > 999999999 .


Returns the precision of this BigDecimal
. The precision is the
number of decimal digits used to represent this decimal. It is equivalent
to the number of digits of the unscaled value. The precision of 0
is 1
(independent of the scale).
BigDecimal
.
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this % divisor
.
The remainder is defined as this 
this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor) * divisor
.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

this % divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 .

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this % divisor
.
The remainder is defined as this 
this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor) * divisor
.
The specified rounding mode mc
is used for the division only.
divisor  value by which this is divided. 

mc  rounding mode and precision to be used. 
this % divisor
.NullPointerException  if divisor == null . 

ArithmeticException  if divisor == 0 . 
ArithmeticException  if mc.getPrecision() > 0 and the result of this.divideToIntegralValue(divisor, mc) requires more digits
to be represented.

Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this
, rounded
according to the passed context mc
.
If mc.precision = 0
, then no rounding is performed.
If mc.precision > 0
and mc.roundingMode == UNNECESSARY
,
then an ArithmeticException
is thrown if the result cannot be
represented exactly within the given precision.
mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 

this
rounded according to the passed context.ArithmeticException  if mc.precision > 0 and mc.roundingMode ==
UNNECESSARY and this cannot be represented within the given
precision.


Returns the scale of this BigDecimal
. The scale is the number of
digits behind the decimal point. The value of this BigDecimal
is
the unsignedValue * 10^(scale). If the scale is negative, then this
BigDecimal
represents a big integer.
BigDecimal
.
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this
10^n
.
The scale of the result is this.scale()
 n
.
The precision of the result is the precision of this
.
This method has the same effect as movePointRight(int)
, except that
the precision is not changed.
n  number of places the decimal point has to be moved. 

this * 10^n
Returns a new BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale. If
the new scale is greater than the old scale, then additional zeros are
added to the unscaled value. If the new scale is smaller than the old
scale, then trailing zeros are removed. If the trailing digits are not
zeros then an ArithmeticException is thrown.
If no exception is thrown, then the following equation holds: x.setScale(s).compareTo(x) == 0
.
newScale  scale of the result returned. 

BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale.ArithmeticException  if rounding would be necessary. 

Returns a new BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale.
If the new scale is greater than the old scale, then additional zeros are added to the unscaled value. In this case no rounding is necessary.
If the new scale is smaller than the old scale, then trailing digits are removed. If these trailing digits are not zero, then the remaining unscaled value has to be rounded. For this rounding operation the specified rounding mode is used.
newScale  scale of the result returned. 

roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale.IllegalArgumentException  if roundingMode is not a valid rounding mode. 

ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == ROUND_UNNECESSARY and rounding is
necessary according to the given scale.

Returns a new BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale.
If the new scale is greater than the old scale, then additional zeros are added to the unscaled value. In this case no rounding is necessary.
If the new scale is smaller than the old scale, then trailing digits are removed. If these trailing digits are not zero, then the remaining unscaled value has to be rounded. For this rounding operation the specified rounding mode is used.
newScale  scale of the result returned. 

roundingMode  rounding mode to be used to round the result. 
BigDecimal
instance with the specified scale.NullPointerException  if roundingMode == null . 

ArithmeticException  if roundingMode == ROUND_UNNECESSARY and rounding is
necessary according to the given scale.

Returns this BigDecimal
as a short value if it has no fractional
part and if its value fits to the short range ([2^{15}..2^{15}1]). If
these conditions are not met, an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
BigDecimal
as a short value.ArithmeticException  if rounding is necessary of the number doesn't fit in a short. 

Returns the sign of this BigDecimal
.
1
if this < 0
,
0
if this == 0
,
1
if this > 0
. Returns a new BigDecimal
instance with the same value as this
but with a unscaled value where the trailing zeros have been
removed. If the unscaled value of this
has n trailing zeros, then
the scale and the precision of the result has been reduced by n.
BigDecimal
instance equivalent to this where the
trailing zeros of the unscaled value have been removed.
Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this  subtrahend
.
The result is rounded according to the passed context mc
.
subtrahend  value to be subtracted from this . 

mc  rounding mode and precision for the result of this operation. 
this  subtrahend
.NullPointerException  if subtrahend == null or mc == null .


Returns a new BigDecimal
whose value is this  subtrahend
.
The scale of the result is the maximum of the scales of the two arguments.
subtrahend  value to be subtracted from this . 

this  subtrahend
.NullPointerException  if subtrahend == null .


Returns this BigDecimal
as a big integer instance. A fractional
part is discarded.
BigDecimal
as a big integer instance.
Returns this BigDecimal
as a big integer instance if it has no
fractional part. If this BigDecimal
has a fractional part, i.e.
if rounding would be necessary, an ArithmeticException
is thrown.
BigDecimal
as a big integer value.ArithmeticException  if rounding is necessary. 

Returns a string representation of this BigDecimal
. This
representation always prints all significant digits of this value.
If the scale is negative or if scale  precision >= 6
then
engineering notation is used. Engineering notation is similar to the
scientific notation except that the exponent is made to be a multiple of
3 such that the integer part is >= 1 and < 1000.
this
in engineering notation
if necessary.
Returns a string representation of this BigDecimal
. No scientific
notation is used. This methods adds zeros where necessary.
If this string representation is used to create a new instance, this
instance is generally not identical to this
as the precision
changes.
x.equals(new BigDecimal(x.toPlainString())
usually returns
false
.
x.compareTo(new BigDecimal(x.toPlainString())
returns 0
.
this
without exponent part.
Returns a canonical string representation of this BigDecimal
. If
necessary, scientific notation is used. This representation always prints
all significant digits of this value.
If the scale is negative or if scale  precision >= 6
then
scientific notation is used.
this
in scientific notation if
necessary.
Returns the unit in the last place (ULP) of this BigDecimal
instance. An ULP is the distance to the nearest big decimal with the same
precision.
The amount of a rounding error in the evaluation of a floatingpoint operation is often expressed in ULPs. An error of 1 ULP is often seen as a tolerable error.
For class BigDecimal
, the ULP of a number is simply 10^(scale).
For example, new BigDecimal(0.1).ulp()
returns 1E55
.
BigDecimal
instance.
Returns the unscaled value (mantissa) of this BigDecimal
instance
as a BigInteger
. The unscaled value can be computed as this
10^(scale).
Returns a new BigDecimal
instance whose value is equal to unscaledVal
. The scale of the result is 0
, and its unscaled
value is unscaledVal
.
unscaledVal  value to be converted to a BigDecimal . 

BigDecimal
instance with the value unscaledVal
.
Returns a new BigDecimal
instance whose value is equal to unscaledVal
10^(scale
). The scale of the result is scale
, and its unscaled value is unscaledVal
.
unscaledVal  unscaled value to be used to construct the new BigDecimal . 

scale  scale to be used to construct the new BigDecimal . 
BigDecimal
instance with the value unscaledVal
*
10^(unscaledVal
).
Returns a new BigDecimal
instance whose value is equal to val
. The new decimal is constructed as if the BigDecimal(String)
constructor is called with an argument which is equal to Double.toString(val)
. For example, valueOf("0.1")
is converted to
(unscaled=1, scale=1), although the double 0.1
cannot be
represented exactly as a double value. In contrast to that, a new BigDecimal(0.1)
instance has the value 0.1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625
with an
unscaled value 1000000000000000055511151231257827021181583404541015625
and the scale 55
.
val  double value to be converted to a BigDecimal . 

BigDecimal
instance with the value val
.NumberFormatException  if val is infinite or val is not a number

